The two sat across the table from one another in City Hall at 10:15 a.m., just hours after de Blasio defeated Republican candidate Joe Lhota in a landslide victory.
De Blasio, the first Democrat elected mayor since David Dinkins was voted in in 1989, criticized Bloomberg's economic policies throughout the campaign, saying that he had lost touch with working and middle-class families.
The two men did not speak to reporters during Wednesday's meeting.
De Blasio secured 73 percent of the vote compared to the 24 percent Lhota won. The Republican conceeded the election in a brief speech 45 minutes after polls closed at 9 p.m.
"Progressive changes won't happen overnight, but they will happen," de Blasio told supporters at the Park Slope Armory YMCA Tuesday night.
"There will be many obstacles that stand in our way, but we will overcome them."